Article 23 : Etiquettes of supplication : آداب الدعاء

Article 23 : Etiquettes of supplication : آداب الدعاء

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Introduction

عَنِ النُّعْمَانِ بْنِ بَشِيرٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ “‏ الدُّعَاءُ هُوَ الْعِبَادَةُ ‏“‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَرَأَ ‏:‏ ‏(‏ وقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِي سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَاخِرِينَ)

Narrated An-Nu’man bin Bashir رضي الله عنه that the Prophet said: “Supplication is worship.” Then he recited: ‘And your Lord said: ‘Call upon Me, I will answer you. Verily, those who scorn my My worship, they will surely enter Hell in humiliation (40:60).'” [Jami at-Tirmidhi 3247]

Praise Allah and invoke blessings upon the Prophet

سَمِعَ فَضَالَةَ بْنَ عُبَيْدٍ، صَاحِبَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ سَمِعَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم رَجُلاً يَدْعُو فِي صَلاَتِهِ لَمْ يُمَجِّدِ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى وَلَمْ يُصَلِّ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏عَجِلَ هَذَا“‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ دَعَاهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَوْ لِغَيْرِهِإِذَا صَلَّى أَحَدُكُمْ فَلْيَبْدَأْ بِتَحْمِيدِ رَبِّهِ جَلَّ وَعَزَّ وَالثَّنَاءِ عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ يُصَلِّي عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ يَدْعُو بَعْدُ بِمَا شَاءَ

Narrated Fudalah ibn Ubayd رضي الله عنه :

The Messenger of Allah heard a person supplicating during prayer. He did not mention the greatness of Allah, nor did he invoke blessings on the Prophet .

The Messenger of Allah said: He made haste. He then called him and said either to him or to any other person: If any of you prays, he should mention the exaltation of his Lord in the beginning and praise Him; he should then invoke blessings on the Prophet ; thereafter he should supplicate Allah for anything he wishes.1

Al Ikhlas / الاخلاص : Sincerity

فَإِذَا رَكِبُوا فِي الْفُلْكِ دَعَوُا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ فَلَمَّا نَجَّاهُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ إِذَا هُمْ يُشْرِكُونَ

And when they board a ship, they supplicate Allah, sincere to Him in religion. But when He delivers them to the land, at once they associate others with Him.2

هُوَ الْحَيُّ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَادْعُوهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ ۗ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

He is the Ever-Living; there is no deity except Him, so call upon Him, [being] sincere to Him in religion. [All] praise is [due] to Allah, Lord of the worlds.3

Hudur al Qalb / حضور القلب : Presence of the heart and firmness

ادْعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَنْتُمْ مُوقِنُونَ بِالإِجَابَةِ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَسْتَجِيبُ دُعَاءً مِنْ قَلْبٍ غَافِلٍ لاَهٍ

« Call upon Allah while being certain of being answered, and know that Allah does not respond to a supplication from the heart of one heedless and occupied by play. »4

إِذَا دَعَا أَحَدُكُمْ فَلاَ يَقُلِ اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي إِنْ شِئْتَ وَلَكِنْ لِيَعْزِمِ الْمَسْأَلَةَ وَلْيُعَظِّمِ الرَّغْبَةَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَتَعَاظَمُهُ شَىْءٌ أَعْطَاهُ

« When one of you makes a supplication (to his Lord) one should not say: O Allah, grant me pardon, if Thou so likest, but one should beg one’s (Lord) with a will and full devotion, for there is nothing so great in the eye of Allah which He cannot grant. »5

Raf’ al yadayn / رفع اليدين : Rising hands

عَنْ سَلْمَانَ الْفَارِسِيِّ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَإِنَّ اللَّهَ حَيِيٌّ كَرِيمٌ يَسْتَحِي إِذَا رَفَعَ الرَّجُلُ إِلَيْهِ يَدَيْهِ أَنْ يَرُدَّهُمَا صِفْرًا خَائِبَتَيْنِ ‏

Salman Al-Farsi رضي الله عنه narrated that the Prophet said:

« Indeed, Allah, is Hayy, Generous, when a man raises his hands to Him, He feels too shy to return them to him empty and rejected. »6

عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ الْمَسْأَلَةُ أَنْ تَرْفَعَ، يَدَيْكَ حَذْوَ مَنْكِبَيْكَ أَوْ نَحْوَهُمَا وَالاِسْتِغْفَارُ أَنْ تُشِيرَ بِأُصْبُعٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَالاِبْتِهَالُ أَنْ تَمُدَّ يَدَيْكَ جَمِيعًا

Ikrimah رحمه الله quoted Ibn Abbas رضى الله عنهما as saying: When asking for something you should raise your hands opposite to your shoulders; when asking for forgiveness you should point with one finger; and when making an earnest supplication you should spread out both your hands.7

Do not be impatient, break family ties or ask for sin

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ قَالَ“‏ لاَ يَزَالُ يُسْتَجَابُ لِلْعَبْدِ مَا لَمْ يَدْعُ بِإِثْمٍ أَوْ قَطِيعَةِ رَحِمٍ مَا لَمْ يَسْتَعْجِلْ ‏“‏.‏ قِيلَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَا الاِسْتِعْجَالُ قَالَ“‏ يَقُولُ قَدْ دَعَوْتُ وَقَدْ دَعَوْتُ فَلَمْ أَرَ يَسْتَجِيبُ لِي فَيَسْتَحْسِرُ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ وَيَدَعُ الدُّعَاءَ ‏“‏

Abu Huraira رضي الله عنه reported Allah’s Messenger as saying:

The supplication of the servant is granted in case he does not supplicate for sin or for severing the ties of blood, or he does not become impatient. It was said: Allah’s Messenger, what does:” If he does not grow impatient” imply? He said: That he should say like this: I supplicated and I supplicated but I did not find it being responded. And then, he becomes frustrated and abandons supplication.8

Facing the Qiblah

عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ قَالَ لَمَّا كَانَ يَوْمُ بَدْرٍ نَظَرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَهُمْ أَلْفٌ وَأَصْحَابُهُ ثَلاَثُمِائَةٍ وَتِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ رَجُلاً فَاسْتَقْبَلَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْقِبْلَةَ ثُمَّ مَدَّ يَدَيْهِ فَجَعَلَ يَهْتِفُ بِرَبِّهِ“‏ اللَّهُمَّ أَنْجِزْ لِي مَا وَعَدْتَنِي اللَّهُمَّ آتِ مَا وَعَدْتَنِي اللَّهُمَّ إِنْ تَهْلِكْ هَذِهِ الْعِصَابَةُ مِنْ أَهْلِ الإِسْلاَمِ لاَ تُعْبَدْ فِي الأَرْضِ“‏ ‏.‏ فَمَازَالَ يَهْتِفُ بِرَبِّهِ مَادًّا يَدَيْهِ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ حَتَّى سَقَطَ رِدَاؤُهُ عَنْ مَنْكِبَيْهِ

It has been narrated on the authority of `Umar b. al-Khattab رضي الله عنه who said :

When it was the day on which the Battle of Badr was fought, the Messenger of Allah cast a glance at the infidels, and they were one thousand while his own Companions were three hundred and nineteen. The Prophet turned (his face) towards the Qibla. Then he stretched his hands and began his supplication to his Lord: “O Allah, accomplish for me what Thou hast promised to me. O Allah, bring about what Thou hast promised to me. O Allah, if this small band of Muslims is destroyed. Thou will not be worshipped on this earth.” He continued his supplication to his Lord, stretching his hands, facing the Qibla, until his mantle slipped down from his shoulders.9

Invoke during the moments favorable to fulfillment

For example :

  • Last third of the night10
  • Between Asr and Maghrib on the day of Jumuah11
  • During rain12
  • Between the Adhan and the Iqamah13
  • When traveling14
  • Supplication of parents (to their children)15
  • …etc

Do not consume unlawful things

ثُمَّ ذَكَرَ الرَّجُلَ يُطِيلُ السَّفَرَ أَشْعَثَ أَغْبَرَ يَمُدُّ يَدَيْهِ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ يَا رَبِّ يَا رَبِّ وَمَطْعَمُهُ حَرَامٌ وَمَشْرَبُهُ حَرَامٌ وَمَلْبَسُهُ حَرَامٌ وَغُذِيَ بِالْحَرَامِ فَأَنَّى يُسْتَجَابُ لِذَلِكَ

Then he mentioned [the case] of a man who, having journeyed far, is disheveled and dusty, and who spreads out his hands to the sky saying “O Lord! O Lord!,” while his food is haram (unlawful), his drink is haram, his clothing is haram, and he has been nourished with haram, so how can [his supplication] be answered?16

Conclusion

Finally, when invoking to Allah, we need to have in mind that its granting, is of three types :

عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَا مِنْ مُسْلِمٍ يَدْعُو بِدَعْوَةٍ لَيْسَ فِيهَا إِثْمٌ وَلَا قَطِيعَةُ رَحِمٍ إِلَّا أَعْطَاهُ اللَّهُ بِهَا إِحْدَى ثَلَاثٍ إِمَّا أَنْ تُعَجَّلَ لَهُ دَعْوَتُهُ وَإِمَّا أَنْ يَدَّخِرَهَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ وَإِمَّا أَنْ يَصْرِفَ عَنْهُ مِنْ السُّوءِ مِثْلَهَا قَالُوا إِذًا نُكْثِرُ قَالَ اللَّهُ أَكْثَرُ

According to Abu Said رضي الله عنه, the Prophet said : « There is no muslim that supplicates to Allah, that does not contain sin, or breaking of family ties, unless Allah grants him one of three things :

Allah gives him what he asked for

His supplication is conserved, so that he is rewarded in the Hereafter

Allah will protect him from an evil thing

The companions said : « We will ask Allah more ! » The prophet said : « And Allah gives more than that ! »17

✽ ✽ ✽

والله تعالى أعلم

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1 Sunan Abu Dawud 1481
2 Surah al Ankabut s.29 v.65
3 Surah Ghafir s.40 v.65
4 Jami’ at Tirmidhi 3479
5 Sahih Muslim 2679
6 Jami’ at Tirmidhi 3556, sunan Abu Dawud 1488
7 Sunan Abu Dawud 1489
8 Sahih Muslim 2735
9 Sahih Muslim 1763
10 Sahih al Bukhari 1145, sahih Musliml 758
11 Jami at-Tirmidhi 491
12 Mustadrak al Hakim 2534, sahih al Jami 3078
13 Sahih al Jami 3405, Jami at Tirmidhi 3595, Abu Ya’la 3680
14 Musnad Ahmad 27900
15 Musnad Ahmad 27900
16 Sahih Muslim 1015
17 Musnad Ahmad 11133

Source :

Shaykh Hamad al Tuwaijiri حفظه الله

هل تُحِبُّ أَنْ يُسْتَجَابَ دُعَاؤُكَ؟

source of image : rawpixel.com

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