Article 9 : Islam and terrorism

Article 9 : Islam and terrorism

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The aim of this article is to clarify the reality of acts of violence and terror committed unjustly in the name of Islam, by presenting the Islamic principles on this subject. More over, we will browse history in order to understand the origin of these barbaric bigots and the beautiful sayings of the Prophet concerning them. Finally, we will finish by putting forward drafts of solutions to eradicate this problem at its core.

1. Unjustified violence in Islam

1.1. Goodness

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ الرَّاحِمُونَ يَرْحَمُهُمُ الرَّحْمَنُ ارْحَمُوا مَنْ فِي الأَرْضِ يَرْحَمْكُمْ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاءِ

Abdullah bin ‘Amr narrated that the Messenger of Allah said:

“The merciful are shown mercy by Ar-Rahman. Be merciful on the earth, and you will be shown mercy from Who is above the heavens.”

[Jami’ at Tirmidhi # 1924 – Hasan]

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ أَلاَ أُخْبِرُكُمْ بِمَنْ يَحْرُمُ عَلَى النَّارِ أَوْ بِمَنْ تَحْرُمُ عَلَيْهِ النَّارُ عَلَى كُلِّ قَرِيبٍ هَيِّنٍ لَيِّنٍ سَهْلٍ

‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud narrated that the Messenger of Allah () said:

“Shall I not inform you of whom the Fire is unlawful and he is unlawful for the Fire? Every person who is near (to people), amicable, and easy (to deal with).'”

[Jami’ At Tirmidhi # 2488 – Hasan]

عَنْ جَرِيرٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ مَنْ يُحْرَمِ الرِّفْقَ يُحْرَمِ الْخَيْرَ ‏“‏ ‏

Jarir reported from Allah’s Messenger ():

He who is deprived of kindness is deprived of goodness.”

[Sahih Muslim # 2592]

1.2. Killing an innocent

مَن قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ أَوْ فَسَادٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَمَنْ أَحْيَاهَا فَكَأَنَّمَا

أَحْيَا النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا

whoever kills a soul unless for a soul or for corruption [done] in the land – it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. And whoever saves one – it is as if he had saved mankind entirely”

[Surah Al-Maaida v.32]

1.3. Injustice against non-muslims

Definition of Mu’âhid (مُعَاهِدًا) = a non Muslim resident in a Muslim country, or a person from a people with whom the Muslims have a peace/protection pact or treaty.

عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ مَنْ قَتَلَ نَفْسًا مُعَاهَدًا لَمْ يَرَحْ رَائِحَةَ الْجَنَّةِ وَإِنَّ رِيحَهَا يُوجَدُ مِنْ مَسِيرَةِ أَرْبَعِينَ عَامًا ‏“‏‏.‏

Narrated `Abdullah bin `Amr:

The Prophet () said, “Whoever killed a Mu’ahid (a person who is granted the pledge of protection by the Muslims) shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise though its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of forty years (of traveling).

[Sahih Bukhari # 6914]

مِنْ أَبْنَاءِ أَصْحَابِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنْ آبَائِهِمْ دِنْيَةً عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ أَلاَ مَنْ ظَلَمَ مُعَاهِدًا أَوِ انْتَقَصَهُ أَوْ كَلَّفَهُ فَوْقَ طَاقَتِهِ أَوْ أَخَذَ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا بِغَيْرِ طِيبِ نَفْسٍ فَأَنَا حَجِيجُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ‏“‏ ‏

Safwan reported from a number of Companions of the Messenger of Allah () on the authority of their fathers who were relatives of each other. The Messenger of Allah () said: Beware, if anyone wrongs a contracting man (a Mu’ahid), or diminishes his right, or forces him to work beyond his capacity, or takes from him anything without his consent, I shall plead for him on the Day of Judgment.

[Sunan Abi Dawud # 3052 – Sahih]

1.4. Suicide

وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ

And do not kill yourselves [or one another]”

[Surah An Nissa v.29]

حَدَّثَنَا جُنْدَبٌ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ فِي هَذَا الْمَسْجِدِ فَمَا نَسِينَا وَمَا نَخَافُ أَنْ يَكْذِبَ جُنْدَبٌ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏“‏ كَانَ بِرَجُلٍ جِرَاحٌ فَقَتَلَ نَفْسَهُ فَقَالَ اللَّهُ بَدَرَنِي عَبْدِي بِنَفْسِهِ حَرَّمْتُ عَلَيْهِ

الْجَنَّةَ ‏“‏‏.‏

Narrated Jundab the Prophet () said, “A man was inflicted with wounds and he committed suicide, and so Allah said: My slave has caused death on himself hurriedly, so I forbid Paradise for him.”

[Sahih Bukhari # 1364]

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ الَّذِي يَخْنُقُ نَفْسَهُ يَخْنُقُهَا فِي النَّارِ، وَالَّذِي يَطْعُنُهَا يَطْعُنُهَا فِي النَّارِ ‏“‏‏

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet () said, “He who commits suicide by throttling shall keep on throttling himself in the Hell Fire (forever) and he who commits suicide by stabbing himself shall keep on stabbing himself in the Hell-Fire.”

[Sahih Bukhari # 1365]

1.5. Punishing by fire

عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَا تُعَذِّبُوا بِعَذَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَعْنِي النَّارَ

Ibn Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Do not punish with the punishment of Allah Almighty,” meaning fire.

[Musnad Ahmad # 1904 – Sahih]

Conclusion :

With these irrefutable evidence that are the Qur’an and the Sunnah, we realize that the acts of these terrorist groups, who pretends to be Muslims, are in contradiction with fundamental principles of Islam. In reality, these terrorists are just bloodthirsty ignorant bigots, not having the courage to assume and admit their inclination for hatred and violence, therefore they cover themselves with the cover of the beautiful religion of Islam.

2. History and Prophecy

These savage sectarians are called “Al Khawarij” in Islam. The khawarij are the one who went out of the Muslim community and revolted and rebelled against the caliphs Uthman and ‘Ali (may Allah be please with them). Indeed, they are the one who killed Uthman ibn Affan and ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, who are respectively, the third and fourth caliphs of Islam. These khawarij are considered as the inheritors of Dhul Khuwaysira, a man known for rebelling against the Messenger of Allah ﷺ  :

أَنَّ أَبَا سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيَّ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ بَيْنَمَا نَحْنُ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَهْوَ يَقْسِمُ قَسْمًا أَتَاهُ ذُو الْخُوَيْصِرَةِ ـ وَهْوَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ بَنِي تَمِيمٍ ـ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ اعْدِلْ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏“‏ وَيْلَكَ، وَمَنْ يَعْدِلُ إِذَا لَمْ أَعْدِلْ قَدْ خِبْتَ وَخَسِرْتَ إِنْ لَمْ أَكُنْ أَعْدِلُ ‏“‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ائْذَنْ لِي فِيهِ، فَأَضْرِبَ عُنُقَهُ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏“‏ دَعْهُ فَإِنَّ لَهُ أَصْحَابًا، يَحْقِرُ أَحَدُكُمْ صَلاَتَهُ مَعَ صَلاَتِهِمْ وَصِيَامَهُ مَعَ صِيَامِهِمْ، يَقْرَءُونَ الْقُرْآنَ لاَ يُجَاوِزُ تَرَاقِيَهُمْ، يَمْرُقُونَ مِنَ الدِّينِ كَمَا يَمْرُقُ السَّهْمُ مِنَ الرَّمِيَّةِ، يُنْظَرُ إِلَى نَصْلِهِ فَلاَ يُوجَدُ فِيهِ شَىْءٌ، ثُمَّ يُنْظَرُ إِلَى رِصَافِهِ فَمَا يُوجَدُ فِيهِ شَىْءٌ، ثُمَّ يُنْظَرُ إِلَى نَضِيِّهِ ـ وَهْوَ قِدْحُهُ ـ فَلاَ يُوجَدُ فِيهِ شَىْءٌ، ثُمَّ يُنْظَرُ إِلَى قُذَذِهِ فَلاَ يُوجَدُ فِيهِ شَىْءٌ، قَدْ سَبَقَ الْفَرْثَ وَالدَّمَ، آيَتُهُمْ رَجُلٌ أَسْوَدُ إِحْدَى عَضُدَيْهِ مِثْلُ ثَدْىِ الْمَرْأَةِ، أَوْ مِثْلُ الْبَضْعَةِ تَدَرْدَرُ وَيَخْرُجُونَ عَلَى حِينِ فُرْقَةٍ مِنَ النَّاسِ ‏“‏‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو سَعِيدٍ فَأَشْهَدُ أَنِّي سَمِعْتُ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ قَاتَلَهُمْ وَأَنَا مَعَهُ، فَأَمَرَ بِذَلِكَ الرَّجُلِ، فَالْتُمِسَ فَأُتِيَ بِهِ حَتَّى نَظَرْتُ إِلَيْهِ عَلَى نَعْتِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم الَّذِي نَعَتَهُ‏.‏

Narrated Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri:

While we were with Allah’s Messenger () who was distributing (i.e. some property), there came Dhu-l- Khuwaisira, a man from the tribe of Bani Tamim and said, “O Allah’s Messenger ()! Do Justice.” The Prophet said, “Woe to you! Who could do justice if I did not? I would be a desperate loser if I did not do justice.” `Umar said, “O Allah’s Messenger ()! Allow me to chop his head off.” The Prophet () said, “Leave him, for he has companions who pray and fast in such a way that you will consider your fasting negligible in comparison to theirs. They recite Qur’an but it does not go beyond their throats (i.e. they do not act on it) and they will desert Islam as an arrow goes through a victim’s body, so that the hunter, on looking at the arrow’s blade, would see nothing on it; he would look at its Risaf and see nothing: he would look at its Nadi and see nothing, and he would look at its Qudhadh (Risaf, Nadi and Qudhadh are the names of the different parts of an arrow) and see nothing (neither meat nor blood), for the arrow has been too fast even for the blood and excretions to smear. The sign by which they will be recognized is that among them there will be a black man, one of whose arms will resemble a woman’s breast or a lump of meat moving loosely. Those people will appear when there will be differences amongst the people.”

I testify that I heard this narration from Allah’s Messenger () and I testify that `Ali bin Abi Talib fought with such people, and I was in his company. He ordered that the man (described by the Prophet () ) should be looked for. The man was brought and I looked at him and noticed that he looked exactly as the Prophet () had described him.

[Sahih Bukhari # 3610]

Among the wrong beliefs of the khawarij are that they consider disbeliever any Muslim that falls into major sins, furthermore, they believe that it is lawful to fight Muslims who are disagreeing with them, hence their murders of the companions of the Prophet . That’s why the Messenger of Allah declared regarding them :

عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي أَوْفَى، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ ‏ “‏ الْخَوَارِجُ كِلاَبُ النَّارِ ‏“‏

It was narrated that Ibn Awfa said:

“The Messenger of Allah said: ‘The Khawarij are the dogs of Hell.'”

[Sunan Ibn Majah # 173 – Sahih]

Conclusion :

The same way as we don’t affiliate the crusades, the Spanish inquisition, slavery, colonization, or the genocide of native Americans to the christian religion, we can’t associate these acts of violence to Islam and Muslims. Violence and tribulations appear when we abandon the revelation from God, with what Prophets came with, and we begin to modify, remove or add in the religion of God according to our whims and desires.

3. Draft Solutions

3.1. Education

Leave the darkness of ignorance to the light of knowledge and truth through education and learning the authentic islamic knowledge.

الر ۚ كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ إِلَيْكَ لِتُخْرِجَ النَّاسَ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِمْ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَمِيدِ

Alif, Lam, Ra. [This is] a Book which We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], that you might bring mankind out of darknesses into the light by permission of their Lord – to the path of the Exalted in Might, the Praiseworthy -”

[Surah Ibrahim v.1]

رَّسُولًا يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ مُبَيِّنَاتٍ لِّيُخْرِجَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ

[He sent] a Messenger [Muhammad] reciting to you the distinct verses of Allah that He may bring out those who believe and do righteous deeds from darknesses into the light”

[Surah Talaq v.11]

Educate people whether they are Muslim or not, in order to avoid that they fall into doubt and spread disorder in the world and so that they understand that, not only Islam and Muslims are innocent from this odious acts, but also that Islam condemn any terrorist act because it contradicts its fundamental principals.

We can also remind of the virtues of seeking knowledge, indeed, Islamic science with the adequate practice, protects our hearts of doubts and passions, thus from any kind of misguidance :

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مَنْ سَلَكَ طَرِيقًا يَلْتَمِسُ فِيهِ عِلْمًا سَهَّلَ اللَّهُ لَهُ بِهِ طَرِيقًا إلَى الْجَنَّةِ

Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger () as saying:

He who treads the path in search of knowledge, Allah would make that path easy, leading to Paradise for him”

[Sahih Muslim # 2699]

3.2. The best of examples

لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ

There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern”

[Surah Al Ahzab v.21]

If we want to see a perfect Muslim, we have to take the Messenger of Allah as reference. In fact, anyone sincerely seeking the truth and with a neutral and just point of view, will realize by reading the biography and the Sunnah of the Prophet of the real character and beautiful principles that Islam expects of Muslims.

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ مَا ضَرَبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم شَيْئًا قَطُّ بِيَدِهِ وَلاَ امْرَأَةً وَلاَ خَادِمًا إِلاَّ أَنْ يُجَاهِدَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَمَا نِيلَ مِنْهُ شَىْءٌ قَطُّ فَيَنْتَقِمَ مِنْ صَاحِبِهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يُنْتَهَكَ شَىْءٌ مِنْ مَحَارِمِ اللَّهِ فَيَنْتَقِمَ لِلَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ

‘A’isha (wife of the Prophet) reported that Allah’s Messenger () never beat anyone with his hand, neither a woman nor a servant, but only, in the case when he had been fighting in the cause of Allah and he never took revenge for anything unless the things made inviolable by Allah were made violable; he then took revenge for Allah, the Exalted and Glorious.

[Sahih Muslim # 2328]

حَدَّثَنَا أَنَسٌ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ خَدَمْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَشْرَ سِنِينَ، فَمَا قَالَ لِي أُفٍّ‏.‏ وَلاَ لِمَ صَنَعْتَ وَلاَ أَلاَّ صَنَعْتَ‏.

Narrated Anas:

I served the Prophet () for ten years, and he never said to me, “Uf” (a minor harsh word denoting impatience) and never blamed me by saying, “Why did you do so or why didn’t you do so?”

[Sahih Bukhari # 6038]

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ خَيْرُكُمْ خَيْرُكُمْ لأَهْلِهِ وَأَنَا خَيْرُكُمْ لأَهْلِ

Narrated ‘Aishah:

that the Messenger of Allah () said: “The best of you is the best to his wives, and I am the best of you to my wives”

[Jami at Tirmidhi # 3895 – Sahih]

والله تعالى أعلم

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